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Harmonic Analysis arrow   Testing Energy Standards arrow
     
Laboratory AC Metrology arrow   Upgrading Test Boards arrow
     
Testing Revenue Meters arrow    


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Harmonic Analysis

The Radian RS-933 Power & Energy Automated Calibration System is one of the most powerful harmonics analysis tools in the world. The RS-933 allows the user to create arbitrary waveforms with harmonic components up to the 65th harmonic order. Using a simple waveform creation screen, harmonic amplitudes and relative phase angles are entered in any combination. Immediate visual feedback is given showing the nature of the waveform being created. Waveforms can be saved and later applied to either the voltage and/or current axis. The RS-933 then sources these waveforms to appropriately connected devices. The energy measurement accuracy of the RS-933 is better than +/-0.005% traceable to NIST with fundamental waveforms. This functionality allows for detailed harmonics response analysis of revenue meters and power quality instruments.


Radian RD-Standards offer harmonics analysis as an optional feature. Any RD standard can be configured to measure and display up to the 65th harmonic for both voltage and current signals. All standards purchased with the harmonics analysis option come with PC based RR-PCSuite software for graphically viewing and logging harmonics data.


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Laboratory AC Metrology


Radian offers many key components for setting up or upgrading an electric standards or meter laboratory.


Radian Laboratory Calibration Systems can provide functionality to essentially serve as an AC standards laboratory with no other instruments needed. While these calibration systems can serve as primary sourcing standards for numerous electric measurement parameters, the RD-22 Primary Transfer Standard provides a more traditional primary sensing standard. The RD-22 is the most accurate sensing standard that Radian offers, and is one of the most accurate standards in the world. The RD-22 can either be used stand-alone with third party voltage and current sources, or as the primary reference to RS-933 Power & Energy Automated Calibration systems to provide the ultimate AC standards laboratory. In this scenario, the RD-22 can be the primary reference standard while the RS-933 serves as a secondary standard. The RD-22 can also bridge the gap between your fundamental DC references for voltage, resistance and time by offering DC to AC accuracy transfer abilities. DC references are available from companies like Fluke, Guildline and Arbiter Systems.


Secondary Standards are used for testing working or field standards. The RD-21 Portable Reference Standard serves as the definitive secondary standard. It can be used to test field standards or standards inside of meter test boards. The RD-21 can also be used as primary watthour reference standards. A set of three RD-21 standards is typically used in this primary standard application. Radian Calibration Lab Services provide a variety of options for standards laboratories to maintain NIST traceability for their primary and secondary standards. Radian's calibration lab maintains NIST traceability for numerous electric energy parameters including Watthours, AC Volts, AC Amps, AC Watts and time.


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Testing Revenue Meters


The most common application of electric energy standards is the accuracy testing of revenue billing meters. There are five primary components required for testing a revenue meter. They are:

Reference Standards: The reference standard is the heart of the accuracy test. It is the reference measurement to which the meter's energy measurement is compared. It is important to utilize a reference standard with an accuracy that is significantly better than the meter you are testing. If the standard that you use is only slightly more accurate than the meter under test, the validity of your test on that meter becomes questionable.

Current Source or Phantom Load: A current source or Phantom Load is used to generate the test current for the meter test. Both the reference standard and the meter under test must have the exact same voltage and current signal applied. Voltage and current sources are available in both portable configurations for field testing and in larger stationary configurations for laboratory or meter shop applications. Customers typically maintain phantom loads from old test sets and upgrade the remaining components.

Sensors and Pickups: Sensors and Pickups are used to automate the timing of a meter test. These devices "sense" a calibration pulse from a revenue meter. There are many different types of sensors suited for testing electromechanical induction meters and electronic meters.

Counters and Comparators: A counter automates meter testing by counting pulses from a sensor for a specified test length. After counting the set number of pulses, the counter typically stops the standard's display allowing the user to calculate the accuracy of the meter under test. A comparator will also count calibration pulses from the reference standard and in many instances performs an automated calculation of meter accuracy.

Universal Test Jack: The universal test jack is typically required only with ANSI style socket based meters. The test jack allows the user to properly route the voltage and current signals from the phantom load so that the meter under test is properly powered. A test jack of this type is not required with bottom connect meters which have a more straightforward connection of voltage and current signals. New Universal Test Jacks are available from Ekstrom Industries.

Testing Singlephase Revenue Meters: For testing singlephase, self-contained, ANSI- style socket meters Radian offers Portable Test Systems. These portable test systems contain all five of the components for meter testing in a lightweight, compact, simple to operate test kit.


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Testing Energy Standards


In order to properly maintain a chain of standardization, energy reference standards must be periodically tested, or certified against other reference standards of higher accuracy class. Reference standards should be certified at least one time per year. Field or working standards should be certified more often.

Radian offers reference standards with various accuracy classes and applications. For the ultimate in standards testing accuracy and efficiency, Radian Laboratory Calibration Systems are the ideal choice. The RD-22 Primary Transfer Standard is the most accurate sensing standard that Radian offers, and is one of the most accurate standards in the world. The RD-22 can either be used stand-alone with third party voltage and current sources, or as the primary reference to Radian's RS-933 Power & Energy Automated Calibration systems to provide the ultimate AC Metrology Laboratory.

Secondary Standards are used for testing working or field standards. The RD-21 Portable Reference Standard serves as the definitive secondary standard. It can be used to test field standards or standards inside of meter test boards. The RD-21 can also be used as primary watthour reference standards. A set of three RD-21standards is typically used in this primary standard application.

Testing field standards against a secondary standard is simplified by using a comparator. If the field standard is external to a test board or test kit, an RM-111 Automated Comparator can be used to facilitate the testing of that standard. The RM-111 also enables three standards to be used as a single reference set by averaging their three respective outputs. A three phase standard can also be simulated from three singlephase standards by use of the RM-111. The RD-22 and RD-21 standards have a built in comparator option that allows for the testing of standards. However, these standards are also supported by the RM-111.

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Upgrading Test Boards


One strategic approach to keeping up with test equipment advancements is to incrementally upgrade key components of existing meter test boards and field test sets.

Reference Standards: The core of every measurement accuracy test system is the reference standard. The reference standard is THE basis for comparison of measurement accuracy. As revenue meters advance in their accuracy and functionality, the reference standard being used to test those meters must be a step ahead. For this reason, the reference standard is the first key component in a test set that should be replaced or upgraded with latest technology.

Sensors and Pickups: Sensors and Pickups are used to automate the timing of a meter test. These devices sense a calibration pulse from a revenue meter. There are many different types of sensors suited for testing electromechanical induction meters and electronic meters.

Counters and Comparators: A counter automates meter testing by counting pulses from a sensor for a specified test length. After counting the set number of pulses, the counter typically stops the standard display allowing the user to calculate the accuracy of the meter under test. A comparator will also count calibration pulses from the reference standard and in many instances performs an automated calculation of meter accuracy.

Test Software: The final stage to incremental upgrade of an existing test set is testing software. Radian PCA-Link Meter Testing Software is used to automate testing and data management for meter testing applications.


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